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The overhead cameras you see at a traffic signal are solely for detecting the presence of vehicles in order to provide the best distribution of green time based on traffic demand. They are cost-effective replacements for in-ground induction loops that are cut into the pavement.
The cameras are not focused on you the driver, but instead on your vehicle as it moves towards the intersection. As your vehicle enters defined areas or zones within the camera's field of view, the camera's processor detects a change in the zone. An output is sent to the traffic signal's controller (the computerized "brain" housed in a nearby metallic cabinet controlling the intersection's timing) that says a vehicle is requesting green time for its direction.
The cameras are also used for counting vehicles using an intersection.
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A higher mounting position allows for a better angle and wider view, which in turn generally allows for one camera to cover all lanes in a particular direction. Lower mounting heights (at signal indications' height) would not provide an effective image. The City of Grande Prairie looks at mounting heights of around 10 m.
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The rectangles are the areas drawn via processor software to target the areas to detect the presence of vehicles.
These particular cameras are in no way tied to any law enforcement system. They are solely for detecting the presence of vehicles within their view. They are not capable of producing an image detailed enough to read license plates or facial features.
However, the City of Grande Prairie does have red light running cameras for law enforcement purposes at some intersections. An entirely separate camera system is installed for this purpose, as the enforcement cameras are much more detailed in their resolution.
No. First of all, the cameras are focused on public property and are not aimed onto private property. Secondly, the cameras and their processor are incapable of displaying or sorting through an image which yields any distinguishing features or identification.
There is no recording of these cameras. The video is analyzed by the processor in real-time, with no storage whatsoever of the image stream.
No. The cameras are incapable of producing an image which renders any specific identification of the vehicle or driver. The camera processor's only function is to determine if a vehicle is within the predetermined areas. It has no surveillance capability.
Cameras are now the most cost-effective way of performing vehicle detection. Previously, the primary method of vehicle detection was done by cutting the pavement a few inches and installing a wire loop just below the surface. This loop is charged with a small electric current originating from the traffic signal control cabinet. As a metal object (i.e. a vehicle) travels through the electric current's field, the change in the inductance from the metallic object triggers an output that a vehicle is within the loop. The signal controller responds to this output with orderly green time.
These in-ground loops have both short-term and long-term costs. The labour for a work crew to saw-cut pavement while shutting down that lane of traffic, and the cost of material (wire, conduit, loop processors) are immediate costs. In the long run, additional costs pile up. The saw cutting of the pavement weakens its strength, resulting in shorter service life and more maintenance costs for pavement repair. When in-ground loops fail, the entire loop must be re-cut into the pavement again, so the labour and traffic disruption costs are renewed.
Video detection cameras, like most electronics, have seen their costs steadily drop since the technology was first introduced. Camera processors, like all computers, have increased their capability as prices drop. Installation is done above the surface of the road, and usually away from the flow of traffic. The pavement remains undisturbed and is capable of lasting longer. When cameras or processors fail, they are simply and quickly replaced without a great disturbance in traffic flow.
Comparing the overall costs of the in-ground loops vs. the overhead cameras today gives the cameras the edge. It is an efficient use of taxpayer money for the job they perform.
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