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Black Knot Disease - First Year

 In the first year of infection, black knot causes swelling and clubbing of the infected branch, but no black outgrowths.  These appear in the second year of infection.

Description

Black knot is caused by the fungus Apiosporina morbosa. It derives its name from the black knot-like galls that form on the branches of infected plants.

Plants Affected

  • All cherries and plums are susceptible to this disease; however, in Grande Prairie it is most commonly seen in Schubert chokecherry and mayday trees. 
  • Other potential hosts include Amur cherry, pin cherry, chokecherry, sand cherry, Nanking cherry, plum and flowering almond.  However, these plants are rarely, if ever, found with black knot.

Symptoms

  • Look for swelling branches that often split the bark in the first year of infection.
  • Second year infection will begin to produce characteristic black knot-like galls (outgrowths) on branches.

How Black Knot is Spread

  • This disease spreads by wind-blown spores.
  • There is an “obligate moisture period” required for the spores to germinate and establish themselves on new wood, so the disease favours rainy (rather than dry) spring weather.

Controls

Black knot has no registered chemical controls.  If you discover black knot in your tree, take the following steps to control it:

  1. Prune infected branches back to the next branch junction at least 30 centimetres (12 inches) below the infected area.
  2. Sterilize pruning tools between cuts as a precaution using gas-line antifreeze or a 10% bleach solution.  Soak your pruning tool for at least one minute to ensure you aren't spreading the disease further throughout the tree.
  3. Burn infected material immediately or bag and dispose of it in the landfill.  Do not leave galled branches in a woodpile or in your yard, as the galls will continue to release viable spores that can re-infect your trees.
  4. Some trees become permanently infected with black knot and will continue to sprout new galls year after year even if they are pruned out.  The only recourse for the homeowner in this situation is to remove and destroy the tree, and replant with a species not susceptible to the disease.  Leaving these trees alone merely results in spreading the disease to surrounding, often healthy, trees.

Black Knot Disease - Advanced

An advanced black knot gall on a mayday tree

Last updated: 1/8/2015 10:41:20 AM